Native American Cultures
Imprint Madison, Wis. Physical description xliv, p. Online Available online. Green Library. P75 N37 Unknown. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Contributor Denevan, William M. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references p. Summary Research by some scholars provides population estimates of the pre-contact Americas as high as million in , while others estimate the population to have been as low as eight million.
In any case, the native population declined to less than five million by The University of Melbourne Library. University of Sydney Library. Dixson Library. University of Wollongong Library. UNSW Library. None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. These online bookshops told us they have this item:. Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Public Private login e. Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition.
Lists What are lists? Login to add to list. Be the first to add this to a list. Comments and reviews What are comments? Add a comment. Australian National University. Institutional approval for use of each set of samples in such research was obtained prior to this study in the country of collection. All samples were genotyped using Illumina arrays, and the data set analyzed here is the result of merging data from seven different sources Note S1.
The genotyping that was carried out specifically for this study was performed at the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, with the exception of 10 Chipewyan samples that were genotyped at McGill University no systematic differences were observed between these and the 5 Chipewyan samples genotyped at the Broad Institute. Table S3 specifies details for each of the Native American samples. We merged the data specifically obtained for this study with six other datasets.
We further removed samples that were outliers in PCA relative to others from their group, showed an excess rate of heterozygotes compared to the expected rate from the frequency in the population, or had evidence of being a second degree relative or closer to another sample in the study Note S1. Haplotype phase in the ancestral panel, which is necessary for HAPMIX, was determined by phasing both pools of samples together using Beagle Multiple analyses reported in the supplementary materials indicate that our masking procedure produces inferences about history that are consistent with those based on unadmixed samples.
Euclidean distances from the Bering Strait We computed a Pearson correlation coefficient between heterozygosity for each population and their least cost distance from the Bering Strait Note S5. We used the 4 Population Test to assess whether proposed sets of four populations were consistent with a tree. We applied a Hotelling T -test to assess whether the ensemble of all possible f 4 statistics was consistent with zero after taking into account their correlation structure, resulting in a single hypothesis test for whether the Test Population is consistent with having the same relationship to the panel of Asian populations as the set of Southern Native American samples used as a reference group.
We also generalized this test by studying the matrix of all f 4 statistics simultaneously and computing statistics that measure whether the f 4 statistics seen in proposed sets of Native American populations are consistent with deriving from a specified number of Asian migrations.
In Note S6 we show that if there have been N distinct streams of gene flow from Asia into the Americas, then the matrix of all possible f 4 statistics can have rank no more than N - 1 ignoring sampling noise. We also developed a likelihood ratio test, generalizing the Hotelling T -test, to evaluate the statistical evidence for larger values of N , allowing us to estimate the minimum number of exchanges between Asia and America that are needed to explain the genetic data.
We used the Admixture Graph AG framework 24 to fit models of population separation followed by mixture to the data. An AG makes predictions about the correlations in allele frequency differentiation statistics f -statistics that will be observed among all pairs, triples, and quadruples of populations 24 , and these can be compared to the observed values along with a standard error from a Block Jackknife to test hypotheses about population relationships Note S7.
We do not have a formal goodness-of-fit test for whether a given AG fits the data correcting for the number of hypotheses tested and number of degrees of freedom, but use two approximations. This results in a nominal P-value, but it is unclear to us at present whether the empirical covariance matrix that we obtain can be equated with the theoretical covariance matrix that is needed to compute a formal P-value. We are grateful to the volunteers who provided the samples that made this study possible.http://nttsystem.xsrv.jp/libraries/41/vak-handyspiele-herunterladen.php
Atrocities Against Native Americans - United to End Genocide
We thank E. Ruiz for assistance in the collection involving the Mixtec, Zapotec and Mixe; A. Carnevale, M. Crawford, M. Metspalu, F. Nielsen, X. Soberon, R. Villems and E. Willerslev for facilitating sharing of data from Mexican, Siberian and Arctic populations; and C. Stevens and A. Crenshaw for assistance with genotyping. We thank P. Bellwood, D. Bolnick, K. Bryc, J.
Diamond, T. Dillehay, R. Hammer, J. Hill, B. Kemp, S. LeBlanc, D. Meltzer, P. Moorjani, A. Moreno-Estrada, B. Pakendorf, J. Pickrell, M. Ruhlen, D. Smith, M. Stoneking, N.
Tuross and A. Williams for thoughtful critiques and valuable discussions. Author contributions. All other authors contributed to collection of samples and data. Data access. The data analyzed here are available for non-profit research on population history under an inter-institutional data access agreement with the Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia.
Queries regarding data access should be sent jointly to G. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 3.
Dib , 8 Claudio M. Freimer , 37 Alkes L. Maria V. Luis F. Juan C. Claudio M.
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Associated Data Supplementary Materials 1. Abstract The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved 1 — 5. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Geographic, linguistic and genetic overview of 52 Native American populations A Sampling locations of the populations, with colors corresponding to linguistic groups.
Table 1 Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow.